In the 1800s, the burgeoning grain trade led to the establishment of commodities forward contract markets in the United States. Farmers in the Midwest would bring their crops to Chicago for storage prior to shipment to the East Coast. However, during storage, the prices for these grains might change for a variety of reasons. The quality of the stored item could deteriorate, for example, or demand for the item could increase or decrease.
This is consistent with a J.P. Morgan Asset Management report published in 2016, "Staying Invested During Volatile Markets," which found that around 60% of the biggest single-day percentage gains in the S&P 500 occurred within two weeks of one of its top-10 largest percentage declines between 1995 and 2014. This means even if you're lucky enough to hit the nail on the head once in a while, no one has the foresight to correctly predict every major pop and plunge in these major indexes with any consistency.
However, this model has inherent problems since stocks carry more risk and are more volatile than government bonds. For example, future earnings forecasts may rise or fall in equity markets, which can positively or adversely affect your investment. What if the 12-month earnings predictions are dreadful as the economy is forecasted to go into a recession? The traditional Fed Model would not account for this future performance and therefore may inaccurately suggest to investors that stocks represent a better option than bonds.
An options purchase will be profitable only if the price of the future exceeds the strike price (in the case of a call) by an amount greater than the premium paid for the contract. For a put purchase to be profitable, the price of the future must fall below the strike price by an amount greater than the premium paid for the put. Therefore, options buyers must be right about the size as well as the timing of the move in futures to profit from their trades.
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As we continue to explore our custom research into the metals markets and our presumption that the metals markets are poised for a massive price rally over the next few months/years, we pick up this second part of our multi-part article illustrating our research work and conclusions.  If you missed the first part of this article, please take a minute to review it by before continuing further (Link to Part I).
The relative scarcity or abundance of commodities can cause large movements in their prices. In the case of agricultural commodities, for example, the size of the annual crop yield can move market prices. Other factors that can affect supply include political, environmental or labor issues in major producing countries. For example, environmental regulations might lead to the closure of mines, and metal prices could rise in response to this supply shortfall. Inventory levels could also impact the available supply of commodities. If major consumers of commodities build up inventory levels, then the market might see the increased supply as an overhang on prices. On the other hand, depletion of inventories could create the perception of a supply shortfall and cause prices to rise.
* Each market will close early at 1:00 p.m. (1:15 p.m. for eligible options) on Tuesday, July 3, 2018 and Wednesday, July 3, 2019. Crossing Session orders will be accepted beginning at 1:00 p.m. for continuous executions until 1:30 p.m. on this date, and NYSE American Equities, NYSE Arca Equities, and NYSE National late trading sessions will close at 4:00 pm. All times are Eastern Time.
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The primary reason behind this is the watershed change in global central banks’ monetary policies. For years central banks had been keeping rates near 0%, or below, and at the same time printing over a hundred billion dollars’ worth of fiat currencies each and every month to purchase bonds and stocks. That is all changing now. According to Capital Economics, fourteen major global central banks are either in the process right now, or have indicated that they be will next year, in the process of raising interest rates. At the same time, QE on a global net basis will plunge from $180 billion per month at its peak during 2017, to $0 by December…and will then go negative in 2019.
	Short Interest is the number of shares currently borrowed by short sellers for sale, but not yet returned to the owner (lender). Every short seller anticipates a declining stock market. A profit is made if the stock is bought back at a lower price than when it was sold short. When a large amount of short selling activity is occurring, market participants obviously expect prices to head lower. Short sellers are potential buyers sooner or later and represent a lot of buying power when they have to scramble for cover in a sudden market turn. 

Weather can play an important role in determining many commodity prices. In the agricultural sector, prolonged drought conditions or excessive rainfall can limit crop yields and cause prices to rise. In the energy sector, hurricanes, storms or extremely cold weather can curtail drilling or refining activity and create supply shortfalls. Severe winter weather can create excessive demand for heating and cause big increases in prices of commodities such as natural gas and heating oil. Extremely warm weather, on the other hand, could raise demand for electricity needed to power air conditioning units.

Valeriy Zakamulin is Professor of Finance at the School of Business and Law, University of Agder, Norway. He has an M.S. in Business Administration and a PhD in Finance from the Norwegian School of Economics, Norway. He has published articles for various refereed academic and practitioner journals and is a frequent speaker at international conferences. He has also served on the Editorial Board of the Open Economics Journal, Journal of Banking and Finance, and International Journal of Emerging Markets. His current research interests cover behavioral finance, portfolio optimization, time-series analysis of financial data, and stock return and risk predictability.
As the world’s reserve currency, the dollar can often dictate the direction of commodity prices. When the value of the dollar drops against other currencies, it takes more dollars to purchase commodities than it does when the price is high. Put another way, sellers of commodities get fewer dollars for their product when the dollar is strong and more dollars when the currency is weak. Factors such as weak employment or GDP numbers in the United States can weaken the dollar and lead to higher commodity prices, while strong economic numbers can weaken commodity prices.
“With a view to enable integration of trading of various segments of securities market at the level of exchanges, it has been decided to permit stock exchanges to set their trading hours in the equity derivatives segment between 9:00 am and 11:55 pm, similar to the trading hours for commodity derivatives segment which are presently fixed between 10:00 am and 11:55 pm, provided that the stock exchange and its clearing corporation(s) have in place risk management system and infrastructure commensurate to the trading hours,” SEBI said in a statement.